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What we're talking about
- Bruce Norman on Farewell Mark 'The Ear' I started listening to Mark when the 4BC came to Tasmania, and I just think the "turf teasers", even though you have to wake ... more
- John on Calls for Island bridge Did buy a block to build and retire to one day. It's nice to get good clean discussion about the Bridge , not to sure about ... more
- Helen Arnall on Calls for Island bridge Private enterprises could be used to build a bridge - Look to Isle of Skye in Scotland - lots of protests, but successfully ... more
- Dale on Crime corner Whiskey au Go Go Bluey O.Gorman loved to go the knuckle with the smartys but no way was he involved with the rat pack or ever on the take. more
- Rita on Calls for Island bridge Russell Island is a fast growing community with needs as any other. A bridge would give RI residents a future with ... more
- GregHS on Calls for Island bridge Walter, if I say just one word - parking, that would crush your arguments. No matter what, growing population will not stop ... more
- James W on Calls for Island bridge Island Owners should stump the money up, if they want it. It will be their land values that will increase to offset the ... more
- walter on Calls for Island bridge The whole idea of island living is the apeal of seperation & apart from mainland living. A bridge would ultimately destroy ... more
- Debbie Copnell on Kim Mothershaw Cruise Hi Kim How's the family? My father heard you advertise on radio a cruise to Gallipoli for Anzac day next year. Could you ... more
- Craig on VIDEO: Terrorist discussion Only trouble with this video is it was created on the 16th July, that is a day before the plane was destroyed. So who is ... more
- Ash Gulati on Calls for Island bridge OMG still no bridge, I thought it will be due for maintenance soon... since how long the residents been yelling for one... ... more
- Cheryl on Calls for Island bridge Dear readers.Russell Island is defianetly growing.Why because the demand of affordable land is sadly becoming unavailable.I ... more
- CHARLES on New banknotes Like to see just plenty of $100 notes shared around.. more
- Karen on Boland back for Brisbane I would listen in the mornings if Warren Boland STAYED, otherwise NO!!!! more
- mal moon on 30 pubs in 30 days I would like to get the sound track from 30 pubs in 30 days more
- jodi on New banknotes tacky looking, surely they can put these amazing Australian's on notes that don't look like so cartoony, i think its the ... more
- Reg on Boland back for Brisbane Great to hear that at least 4BC knows Warren's value. ABC really lost the plot when they dumped him. I'm just at a loss to ... more
- Rita on Calls for Island bridge If you would like to support Russell Island Queensland please join Russell Island Queensland Bridge supporters on Facebook. ... more
- Rita on Calls for Island bridge Russell Island is a community & part of the RCC & should be treated as such. If they need a better solution to transport ... more
- Geoff Emerton on Beatles Day Without any doubt, the biggest sporting event in the world is the Hockey World Cup. How come there is no mention of it? more
Caveman, advanced thinkers
Paleontologists say they have found small blades in a South African cave proving that man was an advanced thinker making stone tools 71,000 years ago - millennia earlier than thought.
The find suggests early humans from Africa had a capacity for complex thought and weapons production that gave them a distinct evolutionary advantage over Neanderthals, say the authors of a study published in Nature.
Scientists agree that our lineage appeared in Africa more than 100,000 years ago, but there is much debate about when Homo sapiens' cultural and cognitive character began resembling that of modern humans.
Small, manufactured blades such as those found in hunting arrows were first thought to have appeared in South Africa between 65,000 and 60,000 years ago.
Now, a team of scientists say they have found much older blades, called microliths and produced by chipping away at heat-treated stone, in a cave near Mossel Bay on South Africa's south coast.
"Our research... shows that microlithic technology originated early in South Africa, evolved over a vast time span (about 11,000 years) and was typically coupled to complex heat treatment," the study authors wrote.
"Advanced technologies in Africa were early and enduring," they said, adding that long absences of tool-use evidence in the palaeontological record are explained by the relatively small number of sites excavated to date, not by an ebb and flow in early man's technological know-how.
The find is evidence that early modern humans in South Africa had the ability to make complex designs and teach others to copy them, said the researchers.
This would have allowed them to produce tools like arrows with a much longer killing distance than hand-cast spears.
"Microlith-tipped projectile weapons increased hunting success rate, reduced injury from hunting encounters gone wrong, extended the effective range of lethal interpersonal violence," wrote the team.
It would also have conferred "substantive advantages on modern humans as they left Africa and encountered Neanderthals equipped only with hand-cast spears".
Neanderthals lived in parts of Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East for up to 300,000 years but appear to have vanished some 40,000 years ago.
In a comment on the study, also published by Nature, anthropologist Sally McBrearty from the University of Connecticut said humans making the monoliths would have chipped small blades from stone carefully selected for its texture and heat-treated to make it easier to work with.
They would then have retouched the blades into geometric shapes, probably for use in arrows to be shot from bows.
This, in turn, meant the makers would have had to collect other materials such as wood, fibres, feathers, bone and sinew over a period of days, weeks or months, interrupted by other, more urgent tasks.
"The ability to hold and manipulate operations and images of objects in memory, and to execute goal-directed procedures over space and time, is termed executive function and is an essential component of the modern mind," McBrearty wrote.